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( GRAMMAR: Tenses, transformation of tenses, subject and verb agreement, inversion, tag question:

Tenses, transformation of tenses, subject and verb agreement, inversion, tag question:
A. Tenses: 
1.  The simple present tense: (thì hiện tại đơn)
S + V(s/es)    ( động từ “to be” : S + am / is / are )
Adverbs: always, usually, often, sometimes, everyday/week/night…, seldom, rarely…
Diễn tả một sự thật hiển nhiên hoặc một việc thường xuyên xảy ra.

2. The present continuous tense: (thì hiện tại tiếp diễn)
S + am / is / are + V-ing
Adverbs: now, at the moment, at present, right now.
Diễn tả một sự việc đang xảy ra trong thời điểm hiện tại.
Cấu trúc be + going to + V diễn tả thì tương lai dự định.
3. The present perfect tense: (thì hiện tại hoàn thành)
S + have / has + V pp(ed/3)
Adverbs: just, already, not…yet, never, ever, recently, several/many times, up to now, so far,                             
                               For + khoảng thời gian, Since + mốc thời gian…
Diễn tả một sự việc đã xảy ra không xác định thời gian hoặc một việc đã xảy ra xác định thời gian nhưng chưa kết thúc.
4. The simple past tense: (thì quá khứ đơn)
S + Ved/2              (Động từ “to be”: S + was / were)
Adverbs: yesterday, last, ago, in (2005).
Diễn tả một sự việc diễn ra tại một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ.
5. The past continuous tense: (thì quá khứ tiếp diễn)
S + was / were + V -ing
Diễn tả 1 sự việc đang diễn ra tại một thời điểm trong quá khứ ( at 7:00 last night)
Diễn tả 2 sự việc song song diễn tả trong quá khứ ( với các liên từ : when, while, as)
6. The past perfect tense : (thì quá khứ hoàn thành)
S + had + Vpp
Diễn tả hành động xảy ra trước 1 thời điểm hoặc 1 sự việc khác trong quá khứ
Thường được dùng cùng với thì quá khứ đơn ( trong câu có các liên từ: before, after, until)
7. The simple future tense: (thì tương lai đơn)
      S + will / shall + V(bare)        (Dùng “be going to + V” diễn tả tương lai gần)
Adverbs: tomorrow, in the future,  next…, in six days (trong 6 ngày tới)
8. The present perfect continuous : (thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn)
S + have / has + been + V-ing
Diễn tả hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ, kéo dài liên tục đến hiện tại( wait, sleep, study….)
Ex: I have been waiting for her for 3 hours/ since 3 oclock
9. The future continuous: (thì tương lai tiếp diễn).
S + will + be + V-ing
Diễn tả 1 sự việc đang xảy ra hoặc xảy ra song song với 1 hành động khác trong tương lai.
Ex: This time next week we will be lying on the beach
10. The future perfect: (thì tương lai hoàn thành).
S + will + have + Vpp
Diễn tả một sự việc hoàn thành trước 1 thời điểm trong tương lai
Ex : We will have left school before this July

 The adverbial clauses of time: (mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian): Là mệnh đề bắt đầu bằng các liên từ: when, while, as, after, before, as soon as, till, until, since….
Sự phối hợp về thì trong câu có mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian:
  Main clause Adverbial clause of time
1.  Present tenses ( hiện tại) present tenses
2.  Past tenses (quá khứ) past tenses
3.  Future tenses (tương lai) present tenses
 Notes : 
 Không dùng thì tương lai ( will/shall ) trong mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian.
 Đối với liên từ Since: S + has/have  +Ved/3    since    S + Ved/2.
 Cả 2 hành động đã xảy ra:  S + had +Ved/3  before   S + Ved/2
                                                 S + Ved/2           after      S + had + Ved/3
 Sau WHILE/AS thường dùng thì tiếp diễn: while/ as   S  + was/were + V-ing
 Sau các liên từ mà không có S ta dùng Ving: After having finished the exam, Ill go home.
 Exercise: Choose the best answer:
1. I -------------- this film twice.
           A. see B. saw C. will see D. have seen
2. After -------------- her performance, she invited the audience to ask questions.
A. she finishes B. finished C. finishing D. she will finish
3. His father -------------- of cancer last year.     A. will die B. has died C. died   D. had died
4. The train -------------- when we got to the station.
A. just left  B. just leaves C. has just left D. had just left
5. As soon as Martina saw the fire, she -------------- the fire department.
A. was telephoning B. telephoned C. had telephoned                  D. has telephoned
6. Before Jennifer won the lottery, she -------------- any kind of contest.
A. hasnt entered B. doesnt enter C. wasnt entering                  D. hadnt entered
7. Every time Parkas sees a movie made in India, he -------------- homesick.
A. will have left B. felt C. feels D. is feeling
8. Since I left Venezuela six years ago, I -------------- to visit friends and family several times.
A. return B. will have returned C. am returning D. have returned
9. Yesterday while I was attending a sales meeting, Mathew -------------- on the company annual report.
A. was working B. had been working C. has worked D. works
10. When my parents -------------- for a visit tomorrow, they will see our new baby for the first time.
A. will arrive B. arrived C. arrive                                D. will have arrived
11. The last time I -------------- in Athens, the weather was hot and humid.
A. had been B. was C. am D. will have been
12. After the race --------------, the celebration began
A. had been won B. is won C. will be won                         D. has been won
13. Andy -------------- out of the restaurant when he -------------- Jenny
A. came/saw B. is coming /saw C. came/was seeing         D. was coming/had seen
14. While he was washing his car, Mr. Brown -------------- a small dint in the rear fender.
A. has discovered B. was discovering C. is discovering D. discovered
15. Linda has lost her passport again. Its the second time this --------------.
A. has happened B. happens C. happened                             D. had happened
16. At this time tomorrow, we -------------- our final exam.
A. will have taking B. will be taken C. would take D. will be taking

17. The baby --------------. Dont make so much noise.
A. sleep      B. sleeps C. is sleeping D. slept
18. Peter said he -------------- a test the following day.
A. had had B. will have C. has had D. would have
19. It is not so hot today as it -------------- yesterday.
A. is B. was C. would be D. had been
20. -------------- a party next Saturday. We have sent out the invitation.
A. we had B. we have C. well have D. we have had
21. Im very tired -------------- over four hundred miles to day.
A. I drive B. Ive driven C. Im driving                          D. Ive been driving
22. Im busy at the moment . -------------- on the computer.
A. I work B. Im worked C. Im working D. I worked
23. Our friends -------------- meet us at the airport tonight.
A. are B. are going to C. go to D. will be to
24. I will tell Anna all the news when -------------- her
A. Ill see B. Im going to see C. I see D. Im seeing
25. Dont worry, I -------------- here to help you
A. be B. will be C. am going to be D. wont be
26. When I entered the room, everyone --------------.
A. has been dancing  B. was dancing C. had danced D. danced
27. Before the invention of the steamboat there -------------- no way to cross the ocean.
A. has been B. could have been C. had been D. would be
28. He said that he -------------- his homework since 7 oclock.
A. had done B. did C. has done D. was doing
29. Tom said everything -------------- ready when the match --------------.
A. will be/starts B. would be/started C. is/started D. will be/started
30. How long -------------- able to drive? - Since 1990.
A. could you B. have you been C. were you D. are you
31. She won't get married until she -------------- 25 years old.
A. is B. will be C. had been D. was.
32. Look. The yard is wet. It -------------- last night.
A. must rain B. couldnt have rained C. must have rained             D. should have rained
33. After Mary -------------- her degree, she intends to work in her father's company.
A. will finish B. is finishing C. finishes                              D. will have finished
34. When he -------------- all the letters, he took them to the post office.
A. has written B. had written C. wrote                                  D. had been writing
35. By the end of this month, I -------------- English for 6 years.
A. have learnt B. will have learnt C. had learnt D. learnt
36. We -------------- in touch with each other for years.
A. will not keep B. are not keeping C. did not keep D. have not kept
37. She has learnt French -------------- the age of five.
A. since B. for C. before D. in
38. Tom -------------- before we arrived there.
A. has left B. had left C. will leave D. leaves
39. Up to now, I -------------- a lot of information about her.
A. learnt B. have learnt C. will learn D. would learn
40. Wait here until I -------------- you.
A. am going to call B. will call C. am calling D. call
41. When I came to visit her, she -------------- a bath.
A. was having B. has C. is having D. had
Mary had to go to New York last week, but she almost ---42----------- the plane. She ---43----------- in the queue at the check-in desk when she suddenly ----44---------- that she ----45---------- her passport at home. Fortunately, she ---46----------- very far from the airport, so she ----47---------- time to take a taxi at home to get it.
42. A. missed B. was missing C. had missed                        D. had been missing
43. A. stood B. had stood C. was standing D. had been standing
44. A. was realizing B. realized C. had realized D. would realize
45. A. was leaving B. left C. had left D. would leave
46. A. hadnt lived B. doesnt live C. didnt live D. hasnt lived
47. A. had B. had had C. has D. has had
48. It is an hour since he --------------, so he should be at office now.
A. left B. has left C. had left D. was leaving

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