Bài tập Ôn thi Tiếng Anh: CHUYÊN ĐỀ 6: CÂU GIÁN TIẾP (REPORTED SPEECH): Các loại câu gián tiếp
1. Tường thuật câu trần thuật (statements)
- Dùng say hoặc tell để tường thuật
- Thường bắt đầu bằng: He said that…./ she said to me that…/ they told me that….,
eg: She said, “I’m happy to see you again”
à She said that she was happy to see me again
She said to me that she was happy to see me again
She told me that she was happy to see me again
- Chú ý đổi thì, các đại từ, các từ chỉ thời gian, địa điểm…
2. Tường thuật câu hỏi (questions)
a. Đối với câu hỏi trực tiếp (Wh-question)
- Thường bắt đầu bằng: He asked (me) …/ He wanted to know…/ She wondered….
Eg: She asked, “What is his job?” à She asked what his job was.
They asked me, “Where did you have lunch?” à They asked me where I had lunch.
- Không đặt trợ động từ trước chủ ngữ như trong câu hỏi trực tiếp.
- Không đặt dấu chấm hỏi cuối câu.
- Thay đổi thì , đại từ, các từ chỉ thời gian, địa điểm…
b. Đối với câu hỏi “Yes – No” hoặc câu hỏi lựa chọn “Or”
- Phải thêm từ “if/whether” để mở đầu câu tường thuật
eg: She asked, “are you a teacher?” à She asked him if/whether he was a teacher
They asked me, “Do you want to go or stay at home?” à They asked me if/ whether I wanted to go or stay at home.
- Câu hỏi đuôi được tường thuật giống câu hỏi Yes/No nhưng bỏ phần đuôi phía sau
eg: She asked, “You will stay here, won’t you?” à She asked me if/whether I would stay there.
3. Câu tường thuật với “infinitive”:
a. Tường thuật câu mệnh lệnh, yêu cầu (Imperatives / Commands or Requests) dùng cấu trúc: tell/ ask/ request/ order somebody (not) to do something
Eg: “Read carefully before signing the contract,” he said. à He told me to read carefully before signing the contract)
“The commander said to his soldier, "Shoot!" à The commander ordered his soldier to shoot.
“Please talk slightly,” they said. à They requested us to talk slightly.
“Listen to me, please” à He asked me to listen to him.
“Will you help me, please?” à He asked me to help him.
“Will you lend me your dictionary?” à He asked me to lend him my dictionary.
b. Tường thuật lời khuyên (Advice) dùng cấu trúc: advise somebody (not) to do something
Lời khuyên: - Had better, ought to, should, must
- Why don’t you + V?
- If I were you, I’d (not) + V…
Eg: “Why don’t you take a course in computer?” my teacher said to me.
à My teacher advised me to take a course in computer.
c. Tường thuật lời mời (Invitation) dùng cấu trúc: invite somebody to do something
Eg: “Would you like to have breakfast with me?” Tom said to me. à Tom invited me to have breakfast with him.
d. Tường thuật lời cảnh báo (warn) dùng cấu trúc: warn somebody (not) to do something
“Don’t touch the red buttons,” said the mom to the child. à The mom warns the child not to touch the red buttons
e. Tường thuật lời nhắc nhở (reminders) dùng cấu trúc: remind somebody to do something
“Don’t forget to turn off the lights before leaving,” Sue told me à Sue reminded me to turn off the lights before leaving
f. Tường thuật lời động viên (encouragement) dùng cấu trúc: encourage / urge somebody to do something
“Go on, take part in the competition,” said my father à My father encouraged me to take part in the competition
g. Tường thuật lời cấu khẩn dùng cấu trúc: beg/implore somebody to do something
“Do me a favor, please,” said the servant to his master à The servant begged/implored his master to do him a favor.
h. Tường thuật lời đề nghị , tự nguyện (offers) dùng cấu trúc: offer to do something
Lời đề nghị: - Shall I + V
- Would you like me + to V
- Let me + V
Eg: Mary said to Ann, “Shall I get you a glass of orange juice?” à Mary offered to get Anna a glass of orange juice.
“Shall I bring you some tea?” He asked à He offered to bring me some tea
i. Tường thuật lời hứa (Promises) dùng cấu trúc: promise (not) to do something
Eg: “I’ll give the book back to you tomorrow,” he said à He promised to give the book back to me the next day.
j. Tường thuật lời đe dọa (threat) dùng cấu trúc: threaten to do something.
“I’ll shot if you move,” said the robber à The robber threatened to shoot if I moved
4. Câu tường thuật với “gerund”
Các cấu trúc của câu tường thuật với danh động từ:
S + V + V-ing: admit, deny, suggest…
S + V + preposition + V-ing: apologize for, complain about, confess to, insist on, object to, dream of, think of…
S + V + O + preposition + V-ing: accuse..of, blame…for, congratulate…on, criticize…for, warn…about/against, praise…for, thank…for, prevent…from…
Eg: “I’ve always wanted to study abroad,” he said. à He’s dreaming of studying abroad.
“It’s nice of you to give me some fruit. Thanks,” Ann said to Mary àAnn thanked Mary for giving her some fruit
“I’m sorry, I’m late,” Tom said to the teacher. à Tom apologized to the teacher for being late
“Shall we meet at the theater?” he asked à He suggested meeting at the theater.
5. Câu cảm thán trong lời nói gián tiếp
What a lovely dress! à She exclaimed that the dress was lovely.
She exclaimed that the dress was a lovely one.
She exclaimed with admiration at the sight of the dress.
6. Các hình thức hỗn hợp trong lời nói gián tiếp
She said, “Can you play the piano?” and I said “no”
à She asked me if I could play the piano and I said that I could not